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رونمايي از نسخه جديد ايروسنتر

با تلاش چندين روزه و شبانه روزي همكاران فني در ايروسنتر ، نسخه اسكريپت انجمن ساز قدرتمند VBulletin سايت ايروسنتر به روزساني و بهينه سازي گرديد و به آخرين ورژن ارائه شده آپگريد شد، در اين نسخه جديد مشكلات قبلي برطرف گرديده و قابليت هاي جديدي نيز به سايت افزوده شده و خواهد شد اين پوسته نسخه جديد سايت پوسته ای در 4 رنگ جداگانه می باشد که برای صفحه های Retina و موبایل بهینه سازی شده است.

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dqw
  1. Real Flight ?????? ??
    Real Flight
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    Post دید در هواشناسی

    روشهای اندازه گیری دید در هواشناسی
    دیده بانیهای به منظور پیش بینی اوضاع جوی علمی است که امروزه در تمام کشور های دیگر جهان انجام می شود دیده بانی سینوپتیک بدین صورت است که در دیده بان وضعیت جوی ایستگاه خود را راس ساعت مقرر بصورت کدهای رمزی به مرکز هواشناسی در همان کشور یا مرکز منطقه گزارش می دهند.به منظور تهیه نقشه های سینوپتیک در ایستگاههای اصلی هواشناسی دیده بانی های سینوپتیک هر 3 ساعت یکبار صورت می گیرد. در هردیده بانی کلیه عناصر و پدیده های جوی بررسی و اندازه گیری می شود.این پدیده های عبارتند از مقدار ابر ،سمت وسرعت باد،دید افقی ،انواع مختلف ابر،فشار جو،دمای تر و خشک ،مقدار و نوع بارش و...

    انواع دید در هواشناسی:
    1) دید افقی Horizental Visibility
    2) دید عمودی Vertical Visibility
    3) دید پروازی Flight Visibility
    4) دید مورب Slant Vertical
    5) دید روی باند فرودگاه Runway Visual Range(RVR)


    1) دید افقی Horizental Visibility
    میزان دیدی است که دیده بان با چشم غیر مسلح می توان اندازه گیری و گزارش نماید اساس اندازه گیری در این روش تجربی می باشد

    2) دید عمودی Vertical Visibility


    میزان دیدی است که یک دیده بان هواشناسی توسط بالن ویژه(رادیوسند) اندازه گیری می کند این بالن با سرعت معینی به هوا فرستاده می شود . با استفاده از فرمول
    X=vt می توان میزان دید عمودی (قائم) را که همان X می باشد را اندازه گیری نمود.

    3) دید پروازی Flight Visibility
    میزان دیدی است که خلبان در حال پرواز و یا در حال نشستن می تواند داشته باشد این دید برای مسیرهای مختلف پروازی پیش بینی شده دراختیار خلبان گذاشته می شود

    4) دید مورب Slant Vertical
    میزان دیدی که خلبان در حال فرود و یا بلند شدن می تواند داشته باشد

    5) دید روی باند فرودگاه Runway Visual Range)RVR)
    هنگامی پروازی کور باشد


    F.I.R بدون دیدن باند صورت می گیرد میزان RVR بسیار کم می باشد این پدیده هنگامی روی می دهد که در باند فرودگاه مقصد بدلیل مه یا غبار میزان دید بسیار کم شود در ایران بدلیل کمبود ابزارها ویژه اغلب در حالت 1 و 3 گزارش می شود


    #1 ارسال شده در تاريخ April 19th, 2010 در ساعت 00:04:40

  2. The Following 8 Users Say Thank You to Real Flight For This Useful Post:

    Ali Pilot (April 19th, 2010), Eshghe Parvaz (April 19th, 2010), First Officer (April 19th, 2010), m.boostani (April 19th, 2010), misha (May 20th, 2010), SKY MAN (April 19th, 2010), reza dezfuli (April 20th, 2010), داوديان (April 19th, 2010)

  3. داوديان ?????? ??
    داوديان

    مدیرتالار خلبانی و مهمانداری
    August 2009
    کرج
    572
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    ??? ??? پاسخ : دید در هواشناسی

    ??? ??? ????? ???? ???? real flight ????? ??? ??






    5) دید روی باند فرودگاه Runway Visual Range)RVR)

    هنگامی پروازی کور باشد




    F.I.R بدون دیدن باند صورت می گیرد میزان RVR بسیار کم می باشد این پدیده هنگامی روی می دهد که در باند فرودگاه مقصد بدلیل مه یا غبار میزان دید بسیار کم شود در ایران بدلیل کمبود ابزارها ویژه اغلب در حالت 1 و 3 گزارش می شود


    جهت یادآوری مورد بالا IFR هست .

    در تکمیل توضیحات شما بگم که RVR در 3 نوع است . Controlling RVR یا Touchown RVR که دستگاه اون در ابتدای باند و در 3000 پای اول باند نصب میشه . مورد بعد Midd- RVR یا RVR اندازه گیری وسط باند . مورد بعد Rollout RVR هست که در محدوده 1000 پایی انتهای باند قرار میگیرد .

    SUBJECT: RUNWAY VISUAL RANGE
    (RVR)

    1. PURPOSE. This order provides general information on the
    installation, operation, and utilization of the Runway
    Visual Range (RVR) system. It further establishes
    guidelines for installation of transmissometers, RVR systems
    and retrofit programs for existing installations under the
    various categories of operation. The operational criteria
    under which RVR is to be reported to pilots are also
    included.

    2. DISTRIBUTION. This order is distributed to the branch level
    in the Airway Facilities, Air Traffic and Flight Standards
    Services, and to the Office of Airports Programs; to the
    branch level in the centers and to the regional Airway
    Facilities, Air Traffic, Flight Standards and Airports
    Divisions; and a normal distribution to all airport traffic
    control towers, combined station/towers, general NAS
    sectors, and general aviation, air carrier, flight
    inspection, and flight standards district offices, and
    overseas area offices.

    3. CANCELLATION. Order 6560.10A is cancelled.

    4. BACKGROUND.

    a. All-weather instrument approach operations are divided
    into categories corresponding to different standards of
    instrumentation in the aircraft and on the ground. For
    each category, there is a minimum value of specified
    runway visual range (RVR) below which operations are not
    permitted. The following table identifies the
    categories and LOWEST minima associated with each:

    Category Visibility (RVR)

    Nonprecision 2400 feet
    Category I 1800 feet
    Category II 1200 feet
    Category IIIa 700 feet
    Category IIIb 150 feet
    Category IIIc 0

    b. The increase in air traffic and importance of meeting
    schedules, particularly at the larger hubs, gives
    airport sponsors and aircraft operators an incentive for
    improving ground and aircraft instrumentation so that
    operational capability can be maintained and diversions
    avoided despite low visibility conditions.

    c. One of the requirements for runway instrumentation is a
    system to measure RVR. This system provides a means of
    electronically measuring the transmission of light
    through the atmosphere and displaying a runway
    visibility in terms of feet by determining a runway
    visibility at a previously selected position or number
    of positions along the runway.

    5. DEFINITION.

    a. Runway Visual Range (RVR). In the United States, runway
    visual range is a value determined by instruments
    located alongside and about 14 feet higher than the
    centerline of the runway, based on standard
    calibrations, that represents the horizontal distance a
    pilot will see down the runway from the approach end; it
    is based on the sightings of either high intensity
    runway lights or on the visual contrast of other targets
    whichever yields the greater visual range. RVR, in
    contrast to prevailing or runway visibility, is based on
    what a pilot in a moving aircraft should see looking
    down the runway. RVR is horizontal visual range, not
    slant visual range. It is based on the measurement of a
    transmissometer made near the touchdown point of the
    instrument runway and is reported in hundreds of feet.

    b. Touchdown RVR System. The touchdown RVR system is that
    system whose transmissometer is located near the
    touchdown end of the runway in accordance with criteria
    stated in Order 6990.3, "Implementation of Standard FAA-
    STD-008 Siting and Installation Standards for Runway
    Visual Range Equipment for Category I and II Operation."

    c. Mid-RVR System. The mid-RVR system is that system whose
    transmissometer is located within 1000 feet of half the
    distance of the length of the runway, and the distance
    from runway centerline shall conform to standards
    designated for touchdown and rollout RVR.

    d. Rollout RVR System. The rollout RVR system is that
    system whose transmissometer is located approximately
    1000 feet from the rollout end of the runway in

    و در انتها Designated RVR که در FAA معمولا استفاده میشه .

    e. Designated RVR Runway. The designated RVR runway is the
    runway officially designated by FAA for reporting of ten
    minute maximum and minimum RVR values in long-line
    dissemination.

    This will normally be the runway having the lowest
    instrument minima.
    (This definition is for flight
    planning purposes.)

    6. SYSTEM DESCRIPTION.

    a. A full RVR system consists of the following:

    (1) Transmissometer projector and related items
    (2) Transmissometer receiver (detector) and related
    items
    (3) Analogue recorder
    (4) Signal data converter and related items
    (5) Remote digital or remote display programmer

    b. The transmissometer projector and receiver are each
    mounted atop 14 foot towers either 250 or 500 feet
    apart. These towers are located at least 400 feet from
    the runway centerline on a line divergent from the
    runway centerline not to exceed 14.5 degrees with the
    projector light beam directed angularly away from the
    runway. When an RVR system is installed between
    parallel runways and serves both runways the baseline of
    the transmissometer will be parallel to the runway. A
    fixed known intensity of light is emitted from the
    projector, intercepted and measured by the receiver.
    Any obscuring matter; e.g., rain, snow drizzle, dust,
    smoke, fog, and haze, reduces the intensity of the light
    received. This measurement is converted to an RVR value
    by the signal data converter. These values are
    displayed by digital or light emitting diodes (LED)
    readout equipment in the associated air traffic control
    facility and updated approximately every minute for
    controller issuance to pilots by radio.

    c. The signal data converter requires information on the
    high intensity runway edge light setting in use (either
    3, 4, or 5), transmission values from the
    transmissometer and the existence of day or night
    conditions. On the basis of this information, it will
    compute RVR for any one of the three light settings.
    The RVR value, therefore, is related directly to the
    runway light setting in use, and the pilot has available
    a measurement closely approximating the visibility
    conditions which he will experience on the runway during
    take-off or landing.

    d. An RVR transmissometer system established on a 500-foot
    baseline is capable of providing digital readouts as low
    as 1000 feet RVR. In order to provide a lower value
    (down to 600 RVR), the baselines have been reduced to
    250 feet and the readout displayed in 200-foot
    increments from 600 feet to 3000 feet (to 4000 feet
    older systems), then RVR values are displayed in 500-
    foot increments to 6000 feet. Beyond this point, the
    value of 6000 feet plus RVR is displayed.

    e. Reportable RVR values are not necessarily the same as
    the various weather category limits of RVR. For
    example, Category IIIa extends down to RVR minimum of
    700 feet, yet only 600 and 800 feet are reportable
    increments. The pulse count break points are based on
    odd 200-foot values; therefore, the 800-foot reportable
    values cover a range from 701 feet to as high as 900
    feet.

    7. REQUIREMENTS.

    a. All new and relocated transmissometer equipment will be
    established with a 250-foot baseline.

    b. Siting and installation criteria for transmissometer
    facilities are contained in FAA-STD-008.

    c. A retrofit program for existing installations, including
    replacement of Runway Visibility Value (RVV) (used as a
    primary system) with a digital readout, to conform to
    these requirements should be established as funds become
    available.

    d. RVR shall be specified and published on approach charts
    as controlling visibility minima for precision and
    nonprecision approaches when the runway threshold plus
    1200 feet of that runway is located within a 2000-foot
    radius of any transmissometer provided:

    (1) The existing RVR system(s) meets FAA-STD-008 siting
    requirements.

    (2) The High Intensity Runway Edge Lights (HIRLs) are
    required on both the primary and secondary runways
    and must be set at the same intensity to report the
    RVR for the secondary runway.

    A changeover switch is not required to provide RVR
    information on the secondary runway when conditions of
    paragraph 7d(1) and (2) are met.

    NOTE: Category II/III runways require associated RVR
    systems.

    e. At those airports with identical low published RVR
    instrument minima for more than one runway, the Flight
    Standards Air Carrier representative, in cooperation
    with the Air Traffic Control Facility Chief, shall
    determine which runway is to be the "Designated RVR
    Runway." This designation shall not change unless the
    RVR landing minima for that runway changes or another
    runway supports a lower RVR landing minima.

    f. The installation of a touchdown recorder is required
    when RVR systems are provided; however, a temporary
    failure of the touchdown recorder is not reason for
    discontinuance of operations.

    g. Category I

    (1) RVR systems will be installed in accordance with
    the criteria outlined in Order 7031.2B, Airway
    Planning Standard Number One - Terminal Air
    Navigation Facilities and Air Traffic Control
    Services.

    (2) RVR systems presently installed at Category I
    locations not meeting the above requirements may be
    retained. Relocation will not be authorized unless
    the above requirements are met.

    (3) When RVR systems are being installed, only a
    touchdown system will be required and will be
    installed with a 250-foot baseline. Many of the
    present Category I RVR locations are installed on a
    500-foot baseline; however, modification or
    relocation of these facilities will not be
    accomplished just to reduce the baseline to 250
    feet.

    h. Category II

    (1) For operations at 1600 RVR only a touchdown
    transmissometer system is required.

    (2) For authorization below 1600 RVR, transmissometers
    are required at both the touchdown and rollout ends
    of the Category II runway. Additionally, a mid-
    RVR will be required on a Category II runway when
    the runway length is in excess of 8000 feet.
    (3) When a Category I runway is upgraded to a Category
    II runway, the rollout transmissometer must be on a
    250-foot baseline. An existing touchdown
    transmissometer may be retained on a 500-foot
    baseline.

    (4) Category II runways may be commissioned with RVR as
    low as 1200 feet without mid-RVR. However, mid-
    RVR shall be installed on runways more than 8000
    feet in length when funds and equipment become
    available.

    i. Category IIIa

    (1) For operations below 1200 RVR, touchdown, mid and
    rollout RVR systems on a 250-foot baseline are
    required unless it can be shown that two
    transmissometers (touchdown and rollout) can meet
    the operational needs for a particular airport.
    Where three transmissometers are installed,
    touchdown and mid are controlling, and rollout
    provides advisory visibility information to pilots.
    If a runway requires only two transmissometers,
    touchdown and rollout are controlling.

    8. OPERATIONAL CRITERIA. RVR systems are not provided at all
    Category I locations. All Category II and III systems will
    be equipped with RVR in accordance with previously stated
    requirements. Operational use will be predicated on all
    systems operating normally. RVR data will be disseminated
    to pilots in accordance with ATC procedures and as
    requested. Reference Order 6750.24, "ILS and Ancillary
    Electronic Component Requirements."

    a. Arriving Aircraft

    (1) Category I Weather Conditions (1800 RVR or greater)

    (a) Touchdown RVR - required (controlling)
    (b) Mid/rollout where installed - advisory

    Note: Minima below 2400 feet will not be
    authorized unless Touchdown Zone (TDZ) and
    Centerline Lighting (C/L) are available.

    * (2) Category II Weather Conditions (1200 RVR up to but
    not including 1800 RVR)

    (a) Touchdown required (controlling).
    (b) Mid - not required for Category II operations
    but is an FAA system requirement for runways
    in excess of 8000 feet (see paragraph 7h(2)).
    Where installed, provides advisory visibility
    information to pilots.
    (c) Rollout - required for operations when RVR is
    less than 1600 to provide advisory visibility
    information to pilots.
    (d) The mid RVR transmissometer, if installed, may
    be submitted for an inoperative rollout
    transmissometer.

    (3) Category IIIa Weather Conditions (below RVR 1200 to
    RVR 700)
    (a) Three transmissometers are required unless it
    can be shown that two transmissometers
    (touchdown and rollout) can meet the
    operational needs for a particular airport.
    Where three transmissometers are installed,
    touchdown and mid are controlling and rollout
    provides advisory visibility information to
    pilots. If a runway requires only two
    transmissometers, touchdown and rollout are
    controlling.

    b. Departing Aircraft

    (1) Weather Conditions 1600 RVR or greater

    (a) Touchdown RVR (controlling).

    (2) Weather Conditions below 1600 RVR to 600 RVR

    (a) 500-foot baseline transmissometers installed -
    touchdown RVR 1200 rollout RVR 1000, both
    required and controlling.

    (b) 250-foot baseline transmissometers installed -
    touchdown RVR 700, mid RVR 700 (if installed),
    and rollout RVR 600 all controlling.

    Note 1: Minima below 1600 RVR will not be
    authorized unless the runways are equipped
    with C/L lights.

    Note 2: Where only two transmissometers are
    installed, the touchdown and rollout RVRs
    are required and controlling. If three
    transmissometers are installed, the
    failure of any one transmissometer will
    not affect operations providing the
    remaining two RVR values are at or above
    appropriate minima stated in paragraph
    8b(2)(b) above.

    c. Action required on RVR failure.

    (1) Should any of the required RVR or related systems
    that affect Category II or III minimums fail, the
    approach minimums shall be increased appropriately
    by FDC NOTAM.

    (2) The RVR system shall be NOTAMed out of service when
    the transmissometers or HIRL components fail.

    (3) The RVR system shall be restricted to 1800 feet or
    greater upon failure of components which would
    result in erroneous remote readout value; i.e.,
    computer, day/night switch, HIRL relay chassis.
    Reporting of RVR values under these conditions
    assumes the availability of transmissivity values
    from the transmissometer which can be converted to
    RVR values by use of a chart.

    (4) There is no restriction on the use of the RVR
    system if only the recorder or indicator fails and
    all other components are operational.
    d. Reporting 10 Minute RVR Values. (See "Federal
    Meteorological Handbook No. L (FMH-1) (Abridged),
    'Surface Observations.'")

    (1) The 10 minute RVR values are reported when the
    prevailing visibility is one mile or less, or the
    touchdown RVR values are 6000 feet or less. The 10
    minute values are calculated on a basis of light
    setting 5 and are included in Record and Special
    observations. The touchdown RVR recorder from
    which the 10 minute values are obtained is always
    associated with the system serving the runway
    having the lowest published instrument minimum.

    (2) The 10 minute RVR values are appended to the
    weather sequence by the weather observation
    facility and transmitted on Service A. Retention
    of the recording shall be for a period of 15 days
    except in the event of an incident when they must
    be retained indefinitely.

    (3) Regions shall insure that facilities comply with
    the following:

    (a) At locations having a designated RVR runway,
    the 10 minute RVR values will be obtained from
    the touchdown RVR recorder.

    (b) At locations having a designated RVR runway
    and other RVR runways, all with identical low
    published RVR instrument minimums, the 10
    minute values may be obtained from any one of
    the touchdown RVR recorders, when the
    designated RVR runway becomes inoperative.
    (This requires the installation of two
    recorders in the weather observing facility.)

    (c) At locations having multiple RVR runways, of
    which one has been selected as the designated
    RVR runway, an alternate shall be selected to
    be used in obtaining 10 minute RVR values.
    The alternate runway shall be the runway
    having the next to the lowest minimum which
    permits operations. (This requires the
    installation of two touchdown recorders in the
    weather observing facility.)

    (d) Once paragraph 8d(3)(a), (b) and (c) have been
    accomplished, any revision shall be in
    accordance with paragraph 7e.

    (e) The weather observing facility (FSS or
    National Weather Service) will be notified of
    the RVR runways selected.

    (4) Control towers performing Limited Aviation Weather
    Reporting Service (LAWRS) are exempted from these
    longline reporting procedures.

    شرمنده اگه طولانی شد . اما کامل و کافی و قابل استفاده برای همه هست .



    در ایران فعلا فرودگاه امام خمینی ( ره ) دارای RVR فعال هست و در بعضی فروگاهها مثل فرودگاه پیام دستگاه RVR نصب شده اما استفاده نمیشود
    ?????? ???? داوديان : April 19th, 2010 ?? ???? 02:07:05
    #2 ارسال شده در تاريخ April 19th, 2010 در ساعت 01:56:29

  4. The Following 10 Users Say Thank You to داوديان For This Useful Post:

    Ali Pilot (April 19th, 2010), Eshghe Parvaz (April 19th, 2010), First Officer (April 19th, 2010), m.boostani (April 19th, 2010), misha (May 20th, 2010), SKY MAN (April 19th, 2010), Real Flight (April 19th, 2010), reza dezfuli (April 20th, 2010), rezambs2005 (November 4th, 2012), saheel (March 8th, 2011)

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